1.The four types of market structures we study in economics are perfect competition, monopoly, oligopoly, and monopsony.TrueFalse 2. The long run is considered to be the period when a firm’s inputs are mainly variable and at least one input is fixed.TrueFalse 3.The government regulates a pure monopoly by setting price where AVC (average variable costs) = D (demand).TrueFalse 4.Monopolies, since no close substitutes nor competitors exist, can price whatever they want and still maximize total revenues.TrueFalse 5.As competition increases in markets, the demand curve for products becomes more price elastic and downward pressure on prices tends to ensue.TrueFalse 6. As an imperfect competitor produces more and more output, we can assume that eventually marginal costs will continue to rise and marginal revenues to fall.TRUEFALSE7. Generally speaking, consumer surplus will be highest in a perfectly competitive market structure.TrueFalse 8.The point where imperfect competitors will price their products and earn the highest level of total revenues is at the midpoint of the demand curve where total revenues are highest on the total revenue curve.TrueFalse In general, we can expect higher barriers of entry for a monopolistically competitive market structure than an oligopoly market structure.TrueFalse 10. Monopolistic competition would represent the market structure within which Coca-Cola and Pepsi Cola firms operate.TrueFalse 11. The perfect competitor can produce as much as it wants or as little as it wants with no effects on market price whatsoever.TrueFalse 12. Oligopolies and monopolies attempt reduce output and raise price, thereby incurring overcapacity and waste to society.TrueFalse 13.Redistribution of income from wealthier individuals to lower-income individuals by government in the form of higher taxes and progressive tax systems actually tends to lower prosperity because it weakens the link between productive activity and the reward derived from it, encourages resources to flow into wasteful rent-seeking activities, as well as higher tax rates required to finance redistribution result in resources being devoted toward tax avoidance activities.TrueFalse 14. Decreasing the percentage tariff price on an imported good will result in greater market share for the foreign producer in the domestic country.TrueFalse 15.Which market structure can earn long-run economic profits?a.Perfect competitionb.Monopolistic competitionc.Oligopolyd.Monopolye.c and d only 16. All firms produce wherea.short-run profits are less than long-run profitsb.average total costs are greater than marginal costsc.marginal revenues are greater than or equal to marginal costsd.marginal benefits are greater than marginal profits 17. A perfect competitor is a __________ and can earn economic profits ____________.a.price maker, neverb.price maker, in both the short run and long runc.price taker, in only the short rund.price taker, in both the short run and long rune.price maker, in only the long run 18.The upward-sloping portion of a long-run average total cost curve is the result ofa.economies of scale.b.diseconomies of scale.c.diminishing returns.d.the existence of fixed resources. 19. The law of diminishing marginal returns explains the general shape of the firm’sa.both short-run and long-run cost curves.b.the laws of diminishing returns has nothing to do with cost curves.c.short-run cost curves.d.long-run cost curves. 20. Which of the following labor resources will likely have the most inelastic supply schedule in the short run?a.construction laborersb.filling station attendantsc.dentistsd.sales clerks 21. If Congress suddenly passes legislation that required all U.S. workers to receive the same annual pay, we would expecta.less human capital investment.b.a shortage of workers to fill the least desirable jobs.c.a surplus of workers to fill the easy, desirable jobs.d.all of the above. 22. Economic profita.does not exist in competitive markets.b.provides incentive for investors to undertake risky projects.c.motivates entrepreneurial innovation.d.does all of the above.e.is both b and c. 23.The demand curve of the perfect competitor is a.downward sloping.b.upward sloping.c.perfectly inelastic.d.perfectly elastic.24. An import tariff on an imported good will result ina.higher domestic consumer prices for that good.b.increased market share for the domestic producer.c.increased revenues for the domestic government. d.deadweight losses to society.e.only a, b, and c.f.a, b, c, and d. 25. A nation benefits from international trade if ita.exports good for which it is a low opportunity cost producer. b.imports more than it exports.c.exports more than it imports.d.imports goods for which it is a low opportunity cost producer.
1.The four types of market structures we study in economics are perfect competition, monopoly, oligopoly, and monopsony